ANNE WANNER'S Textiles in History / cieta conference in Lyon, France - 2013


from 30 September to 3 October 2013
The History of Textile Collections and Textile Research
The Year 2013 marks the celebration of 150 Years since the opening to the public of the first musée des Tissus in Lyon, by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and the 60th anniversary of CIETA. The General Assembly to be held in Lyon this year offers a great opportunity to re-assess earlier phases in the history of collecting and researching textiles, to celebrate achievements in the understanding of textile techniques and the uses of textiles, to explore new avenues and create collaborations between scholars and institutions for the future.





  At this year's conference no papers on embroidery were given and therefore you will find here a choice of lectures on
lace, printing, tablet weaving, followed by papers on textile collections in museums, most of them including embroideries.
  P A P E R S on lace and printing
  Rosemary Shepherd, Australia  
  Early lace analysis at the Powerhouse*
My paper will first give a brief outline of the nature and scope of the Museum's lace collection, and the organisation and operation of its Lace Study Centre.
It will then discuss in detail the application of digital microscopy and photography to the structural analysis and reconstruction of a small group of early 17th century bobbin laces which have already been subjected to fibre analysis by scanning electron microscopy.
The paper will pay particular attention to the early techniques, materials and working methods which are quite different from those in use later, and describe a simple method for illustrating the analysis.

*Under another name Sydney's Powerhouse museum was established in 1879 following Australia's first International Exhibition. Although its main focus was science and technology, it began collecting decorative arts objects from the beginning. Today the Museum also collects in the areas of design and social history and has a strong 'online' presence.
  Xavier Petitcol, France  
  Notes and documents for the history of indienne manufacturing in Lyon
The universal notoriety of the Grande Fabrique de Lyon for silk weaving in the 18th and 19th centuries has always overshadowed the field of indienne manufacturing (i.e., printing on cotton cloth), even among researchers. Starting at the end of the 17th century, out of fear that competition would put them out of business, or so they thought, the manufacturers of Lyon did everything possible to fight the indienne manufacturing trend. And they were indeed successful since the latter was banned throughout the kingdom in 1686; but three quarters of a century later, in 1759, cotton and printing were finally free to be undertaken anywhere, even in the city of silk.
Authors Henri Clouzot (in 1928) and Henri-René d'Allemagne (in 1942) devoted just a few lines to this industry, but their consultation of the records provides only economic data: the names of associates, number of printing tables, number of cloth pieces printed per year, and the number of workers - all of which is frustrating for decorative arts historians; no fabric still in existence today was proposed.
This presentation will present for the first time about ten manufacturers' stamps from the city of Lyon alone, as such allowing a few designs to be imagined. This will also be an opportunity to revisit the archives on the indienneurs that appear on these precious marks.
  P A P E R S on tablet weaving, braids and braiding
  Claire Gerentet de Saluneaux and Fabienne Medard. France    
  The use of tablet weaving in the creation of Egyptian caps in the Roman and Byzantine periods
A technical study of two examples from Antinoe

Carried out for the Musee du Louvre, the recent study of a series of caps from the Antinoe necropolis pointed up the diversity and mastery of textile techniques that were employed. Using two specific examples, we will describe one of the recurring features: tablet weaving.
Conserved at the Museé.Guimet de Lyon, the first cap was entirely created using this technique; whereas the second cap, consered at the Hôtel Bertrand in Chateauroux, was made using sprang edged with tablet weaving. These two examples are different but equally representative of production during this period and they beckon us to think about the quality and preparation of the materials used, as well as about the technical processes that allowed them to be obtained. An in-depth analysis of the archaeological examples combined with a cutting-edge experimental approach will allow us to concretely understand how these highly complex objects were created despite their apparent simplicity.
  Joy Boutrup. Denmark    
  Analyses of braids in historical objects
Braids in connection with historical textiles have often been overlooked or sketchily described. An awakening interest for braiding was instigated by Noémi Speiser's books, first the Manual of Braiding and later Old English Pattern Books for Loop Braiding. Especially her book treating the instructions for loop braiding has started research into actual historical braids and their connection to the contemporary written instructions.
She has provided the tools for identifying and analysing braide structures and has devised a universal method for the notation of braided structures with the introduction of the track-plan. New knowledge especially on loop braiding based on this has been accumulated during the
last ten years both through deciphering of the written instructions and through the analyses of historical braids. It is now clear that most.of the braids from the Middle Ages to the end of the renaissance were produced using loop braiding.
Comment: This lecture is in honour of Noémi Speiser, whose extraordinary work on this topic has been made with unfailing enthusiasm and insight through more than 30 years. Noémi Speiser is a member of CIETA and is now 86 years old. Her work has opened new fields of research into textile culture, production and textile use, both in relation to domestic and professional crafts.
  Mihoko Domyo, Japan    
  The unique history of Japanese braiding, kumihimo
Because it has been used as accessories of clothing and furnishings, braid, kumihimo in Japanese has not been well studied in the world of textiles. However the braids in Japan have achieved an unparalleled development in the world. Most of them of the highest grade are owned by the Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, therefore religiousness and spiritualism characterize the Japanese historic braids. Today the techniques of them have been integrated to the.braid fastening the obi sash of kimono. From among their masterpieces, this paper will talk about the braid winding the Heike scrolls of sutra dedicated to Itsukushima Shrine in 1164 by the Heike. Its technique was handed down to the border decoration of Bugaku (Japanese classical court dance) costume of the 15th century, which was recently investigated using a handy digital microscope.
  P A P E R S of some exhibitions and the history of collections
  Maximilien Durand, France    
  On the scribe, the Amazons and a few of Albert Gayet's other mummies: the oriental wardrobe of Antinoe's elegant inhabitants
In 1898, the Lyon Chamber of Commerce funded in large part the excavation campaign led by Albert Gayet at the Antinoe site. For the first time, the site's necropolises were systematically explored and offered up remarkable, unimagined archaeological findings.
These were exhibited in Paris's Musée Guimet from 22 May to30 June 1898. Almost all of the textiles from this dig were then sent to the musées des Tissus, in accordance with the agreement between the Chamber of Commerce and the Parisian institute leading the excavation project. The material was partially studied at the time and had already revealed some remarkable pieces, like the famous crimson and turquoise scratched wool horsemen's cloaks. Most of this material was left as it was excavated, however, in the cases used for its transportation. A campaign undertaken in 2012 to fully conserve the collection allowed some exceptional garments from late Antiquity to be discovered, like those belonging to the scribe, pagan and Christian Amazons, and the musician Thotesbent, described by Albert Gayet in his
Catalogue des objets recueillis a Antinoe pendant les fouilles de 1898. They offer new insight into the oriental wardrobes of Antinoe's elegant inhabitants and have shed light on totally original elements in the city's workshops and textile typology.
  Maria Barrigon Montañés, Spain    
  The medieval textiles collection from Patrimonio Nacional
The Medieval Textiles Collection from Patrimonio Nacional (National Heritage of Spain) holds three different sets: the ones from the Monastery of Las Huelgas in Burgos; those from Saint Ferdinand coffer and a small number of items from the Monastery of Tordesillas, Valladolid.
The collection of textiles and other materials obtained in the 40's from Las Huelgas Pantheon is really incomparable in its importance as a unit that can be studied from many different perspectives.
In this talk, I aim to give an overview on how this collection has been studied from its finding up until 2010, the criteria that have been followed and how in some ways the future studies will depend on them. This will serve as a good example of how ctiteria have changed over the last 70 years of studies of this kind.
On the other hand, we will describe the most recent interventions and actions from 2010, in addition to the new projectis which are in some way related to the museum functions:
conservation, documentation, investigation and dissemination.
  Annette Paetz gen. Schieck, Germany    
  History of the textile collection of the German Textile Museum (DTM) at Krefeld (1880 to 2013)
The nucleus of the museum's collection consists of about 4.000 objects having been compiled by the private collector Jakob Krauth. Due to the famousness of the collection it was purchased by the Prussian State and transferred to Krefeld to be annexed to the royal weaving academy as a study collection inspiring scholars in terms of techniques and designs.
Throughout the years, academy and collection underwent numerous changes in concept, location and names, but in 1981 the collection received its status as self-contained museum at Krefeld-Linn named "Deutsches Textilmuseum". Since then it holds the textile collection (embracing more than 30.000 objects today, the number is still growing), the textile conservation workshop, the library, and the exhibition space for temporary presentations.
This paper will deal with 130 years of history on collecting textiles. It will tell about the actual condition of the museum and will give some insights into future activities.

  Anna Jolly, Switzerland    
  "Showy and garish" - since when does the Victoria & Albert Museum collect eighteenth-century silks?
The nineteenth-century reform movement of art and design lead to the foundation of the South Kensington Museum, with the intention of providing inspiration to contemporary designers and manufacturers. A renewal of the applied arts was pursued by the study of historic works of art and their intrinsic "principles of design". Initially favouring models in medieval and Renaissance style, the later Victoria & Albert Museum did not from the-start actively collect eighteenth-century textiles, as they were believed to embody "false principles of design". The question arises when and under which circumstances eighteenth-century silks and costumes were eventually considered worthy of entering the collection.
This paper attempts to answer this question by investigating the former collecting practices of one of the earliest and perhaps most influential museum of applied art in Europe. It traces the development from initial criticism towards gradual acceptance, acquisitions and exhibitions.
  Sumru Belger Krody, United States of America    
  Ahead of his Time: George Hewitt Myers and his Legacy in Textile Studies
This paper will trace the founder of The Textile Museum, George Hewitt Myers's impact and legacy to the development of the field of textiles studies, especially his efforts in establishing textiles in the wider context of Islamic art in the USA. It will shed light on how Myers's collecting philosophy and strategies, as well as the various ways he encouraged study of the collections, impacted his legacy.
Very early in his private collecting, Myers favored a methodical approach to collecting and studying textiles. He strove to assemble a collection that was as diverse as possible in order to build a comprehensive overview of non-Western textiles. In 1925, he orchestrated the transformation of his house into a museum, and of his private collection into a public one.
Myers believed that the only way for others to appreciate the craftsmanship, design, ingenuity, and beauty of textiles was through scientific study. Part of this strategy sprung from his desire to make textiles accepted as an important component of art history, especially Islamic art. He considered textiles as an independent branch of Islamic art and supported the investigation of their scholarly potential.
  Anna Leicher, France    
  The Louis de Farcy collection
Although often cited, the Louis de Farcy collection has not been the topic of any research due to the lack of sources about it. Among the notes, drawings and photographs rediscovered recently is the inventory of his collection. The list he wrote himself - which unfortunately does not contain any indications about the pedigree of its contents - and a few photographs reveal his interest in religious embroidery as well as gold work. These objects, which include a few very remarkable tapestries, were dispersed by him starting in the first years of the 20th century.
He acquired his knowledge through numerous visits to museums and exhibitions, via his friendships with the biggest European collectors and through the study of the pieces in his own collection. His interest in all of the art forms of the medieval period - as seen in the hundreds of photos conserved in his archives - made him exceptionally demanding regarding the fabrication of contemporary works at the time.
  Ursula Karbacher, Switzerland    
  The three levels of the Charlotte Bing-Hübner collection
A brief introduction to the Sammlungswelten ("The worlds of collections") exhibition at the Textile Museum of St Gallen (26 June to 31 December 2013)

Each of the collections belonging to the Textile Museum represents a world unto itself. Collectors collected for various reasons. Based on this, the exhibition showcases the different types of collections, collectors and users.
Among these collections is that of Charlotte Bing-Hübner, acquired in 1976. It is comprised of lace, fabric and embroidery. It was started around 1900 by Rosa Michel in Germany. R.Michel first began by purchasing fabric from Franz Bock. Then she branched out to lace with the help of Marie Schuette. In 1933, her niece, Charlotte Bing-Hübner, transferred the collection to Switzerland. She also purchased new pieces, but sold others at the same time. Further, she used the collection as a source of inspiration for her own embroidery drawings. The u Textile Museum received a donation from Charlotte Bing's daughter of one part of her embroidery and drawings in 2006. In 2011 we were also able to purchase one lace collection that C. Bing had traded with collectors.
  Francina Chiara, Italy    
  Roberto Regazzoni, fabric collector
This presentation will explore thejigure of Roberto Regazzoni, a collector of ancient fabrics which are now part of the textile heritage of the Civiche Raccolte d'Arte Applicata at Milan's Castello Sforzesco where they arrived in 1955. Based on new documentation, we will reconstruct the origin of Regazzoni's interest in ancient fabrics, his predilections, as well as his network of national and international relations with other collectors and merchants, such as Caspar Homar, Mariano Rocchi, Franco Marinotti, Guglielrno Orefice and Adolph Loewi, to name a few. We will approach the Regazzoni case using both a "microscope" and "telescope": we will analyse his modus operandi, which is testimony to developments already known in the history of textile collectors' work, but we will also go from examining the fine detail to looking at the broader historical context, in which Regazzoni's vicissitudes provide a telling example.
  Sharon S. Takeda. United States of America    
  For the City of Angels: shaping a costume and textiles collection at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art
In 1913 the Los Angeles County Museum of Science, History and Art opened with a vision to develop a cultural center for the flourishing metropolis that just sixty-five years earlier belonged to Mexico. While local organizations programed the new building, the museum embarked on assembling a permanent collection. Within two years the accession of costume and textile objects preceded the first painting acquisition. In the following four decades, major benefactors such as banking heiress Bella Mabury (1871 - 1964), newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst (1863 - 1951), and industrialist J. Paul Getty (1892 - 1976) donated significant textiles, tapestries and carpets. The establishment of a Costume and Textiles Department and announcement of a curator was celebrated in 1953. Twelve years later, as part of the Art Division, the department moved to the newly established Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
This paper will highlight important moments in the development of LACMA's encyclopedic costume and textiles collection.
  Eva Labson, United States of America    
  The "casual visitor"
Textile education at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the first part of the 20th Century
Early in its history, the Metropolitan Museum of Art (MMA) engaged the textile industry through regular Exhibitions of Industrial Art and programing related to technical training.
Frances Morris, Curator of Decorative Arts - MMA, expanded programing to incorporate the interests of the "casual visitor," with the 1925 opening of New Galleries of Textiles. This vision included a "series of mounts illustrating a chronological sequence that enables the student to follow the history of weaves from Coptic fragments of the fifth century to the modem loom work of the nineteenth century." The new didactics illustrate the desire to cultivate literacy in both historical and modem textile production, allowing for "both teachers and pupils... [to] gain a better perspective of the art of weaving than has been possible."
This paper will examine the early role of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in supporting the needs of textile designers and producers while educating the public through the display of great works of art and a discussion of textile methods and materials.
Quotes from: Frances Morris, "New Galleries of Textiles," The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20, n. 4 (April 1925): 102.
  Cristina Balloffet Carr and Lauren K. Chang, United States of America    
  In celebration of collaboration: one example of CIETA's mission accomplishment
This paper will explore differences in collecting practices, preservation and exhibition history of the work of Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo and the value of a collaborative approach between individuals affiliated with different institutions.
In 2005-2006 Cristina Balloffet Carr, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Lauren Chang, Art Institute of Chicago and Silvia Montero, Museo del Traje, Madrid, met in Lyon while participating in the CIETA sessions techniques course. In the course of the sessions, these three conservators discussed similarities and differences in their collections.
In 2010 Silvia Montero organized an international symposium at the Museo del Traje in conjunction with an exhibition of the work of Mariano Fortuny and invited Cristina Balloffet Carr, Lauren Chang and Sara Reiter of the Philadelphia Museum of Art to participate. The Fortuny collections of these three American institutions relate to each other in technique, provenance, and exhibition history. Recent advances in digital technology allowed these three conservators to collaborate in their investigations. Through the exchange of precise scientific information resulting from advanced analytical techniques as well as an exchange of institutional history these three complementary but independent presentations clarified, enriched shed new light on the work of Mariano Fortuny.
  Tove Engelhardt Mathiassen, Denmark - an ongoing Danish project
The objective of the is to make a historical and contemporary digital dictionary or term base available on the internet from the website in order to preserve and communicate the cultural heritage of words and expressions for costumes and textiles. Fundamentally, the scope is Danish but many of the terms have an international origin so also English and French terms etc. are to be explained in the dictionary. The hand written files with collections of terms done by the two famous Danish researchers: Ema Lorenzen and Ellen Andersen are the starting point of the project.
Furthermore Mathias Moths' hand written dictionaries from the 17th century and all is supplied by many sorts of scientific literature, dictionaries and other handbooks. In time the perspective of combining with other European or American projects is an obvious possibility. The members of the project group for are researchers and registrars working at the National Museum of Denmark, the Designmuseum Danmark, at Centre for Textile Research, Copenhagen University, independent scholars and Den Gamle By, National Open Air Museum of Urban History and Culture.
Demonstration of tablet weaving
by Claire Gerentet at Museé des Tissus, Lyon

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