ANNE WANNER'S Textiles in History   /   CIETA Embroidery Newsletters

Newsletter - of the CIETA Embroidery Group
Bulletin d’Information de Groupe Broderie de CIETA

No 11
September 1999

Dear members, St Gallen, 3rd of September 1999
After the CIETA meeting, on September 23rd, we had a joint meeting of the embroidery and lace group in St.Gallen. There was an interesting discussion on gold lace and on the importance and value of microscopic research.
As for the embroidery group I feel we should start a project. I proposed a study on chalice veils in the Museums collections.
I want to inform members, that my job at the Textilmuseum in St.Gallen comes to an end on 28th february 2000, for reasons of my age. But I will continue to send to you the embroidery Newsletter and I will always be very grateful for your contributions. Thank you very much. Best wishes, yours

 Anne Wanner-JeanRichard
Textilmuseum / Vadianstrasse 2
CH-9000 St Gallen / Switzerland

general information:
No 11 / Sept.1999/ 2

general information:

My successor at the Textilmuseum St.Gallen will be Ursula Karbacher, lic.phil., also member of CIETA and of our embroidery News group, and she will start in St.Gallen January 3rd 2000. I will introduce her and I will be at the Textilmuseum until the end of February 2000.
I will continue to send the Newsletter, and I am grateful for any News of you. I would like to start a project on chalice veils. A first trial you will find here on pages 5,6 and 7,8 on paper. Next year there will be a page in the Internet.
Contributions to the Newsletter can be sent as always to the Textilmuseum St.Gallen (Anne Wanner) or to my private adress:

priv. e-mail: +41-61-8313065

new member:
Thessy Schoenholzer Nichols, Via di Mantigano 174, 50142 Firenze, Italia, Tel/Fax: +39-55-78 78 158

changes of adress:
Elsie Janssen, Rubenshuis, Wapper 9-11, B-2000 Antwerpen, Tel. +32-3-201 15 55, Fax +32-3-227 36 92

Edward Maeder, 112 Cuba Hill Road, Green Lawn, NY 10021 e-mail:


the Textilmuseum St.Gallen shows:
27th october 1999 - 9th January 2000
The Turn of the Millennium - Anchor Promotion prize for Embroidery Design
After Baden-Baden, Cologne, Freiburg and Brimstage/UK, the work done for the embroidery competition under the motto "The Turn of the Millennium" is now also on show in Switzerland. This competition, which was run for the sixth time, is a fixed component of the European textile art scene and is now on exhibition in St.Gallen’s Textile Museum for the first time.
From among the 211 contenders from 25 countries, 71 participants from 16 countries reached the jury’s shortlist. Among them were 24 from Germany, 14 from the Unitied Kingdom, seven from the Netherlands and seven from Switzerland. The artists submitted their original work, and the jury made the final selection for the exhibition catalogue, and chose the prize-winners of the 6th Anchor Promotion Prize.
The members of the jury chose the embroidery Wende/sich wenden - Turn/to turn - by Heidrun Schimmel from Munich. Another two works from the United Kingdom namely Breaking down the Barriers by Anna Jane Ray and Millennium Itinerary by Rachel Howard were considered worthy of a prize. The previous competitions’s prize winner, Susanne Klinke, was among the front-runners with her work, Angst.

The catalogue documents an astonishing variety of creations. It is on sale at the Museum’s box office and costs CHF 25.00.

CIETA Conference: Berne 1999
embroidery lectures: summaries of papers
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 3


Birgitt Borkopp, Munich, Germany
The textile treasure of Marienkirche, Danzig - results of a new study
The textile treasure of the Marienkirche, Danzig, consists of liturgical vestments, altar pieces and embroideries dating from the 13th to 16th centuries; by the quantity and quality of its objects, it is one of the most important German treasures. Published in 1931-1938 by Walter Mannowsky, most of the textiles were brought into western Germany during the war. They are since been kept (and partly exhibited) in Luebeck. Now, a new catalogue is being compiled; technical analyses of the silks as well as studies of the patterns of the vestments and of the imagery and functions of the embroideries are being undertaken. The paper will present first results.



Daniele Veron-Denise, Fontainebleau, France
Embroidered vestments offered to the Hôtel-Dieu of Château-Thierry by a Swiss in the service of Louis XIV
The ancient hospital of Château-Thierry (Aisne) possesses collections of great richness, of which numerous elements are remarkable both in themselves and because of the personality of their donors. Those were Pierre Stoppa, an eminent Swiss officer in the service of Louis XIV, and of his wife Anne-Charlotte de Gondy, cousin of the celebrated Cardinal of Retz. Among the multiple gifts which they never ceased making to the Hôtel-Dieu of Château-Thierry, we hope to present the different embroidered furnishing textiles and vestments which have survived: a cope, dalmatics, accessories and many altar frontals.



Monica Paredis-Vroon, Aachen, Germany
The Textile reliques of the blessed Christina von Stommeln
In 1994 the shrine which houses Christina’s remains was opened for restoration. In it were two small relic panels, a pair of gloves and a string bag which all seemed to be contemporary with her lifetime (1242-1312) or her elevation (1339).
The textile objects will be discussed and put into the context given by the Codex Juliecensis which was written during her life as an argument for her sanctification.


CIETA Conference: Berne 1999
embroidery lectures: summaries of papers
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 4

Anna Muthesius, Cambridge, Great Britain
A tribute to Donald King: Silken embroidery and Orthodox faith in Byzantium
Precious embroidered silk vestments and furnishings acted as symbols ‘par excellence’ of Orthodox Byzantine Faith. Their widespread use in Byzantium was documented throughout the period from the 6th to the 15th centuries, not least at Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
This paper, as a tribute to my teacher Donald King, explores the tenets of Orthodox Byzantine Faith embodied in the silks and it asks how far these precious cloths reflected changing relationships between Church and State in Byzantium. Importanf unpublished materials from St Johns’s monastery, Patmos, and St Catherine’s monastery, Sinai, form a focus for this discussion. The silks of both treasuries are presently under preparation for publication by the author.
Rosa Martin I Ros, Barcelona, Spain
The Cope of Daroca
The Cope of Daroca has been preserved in the Museo Arqueológico Nacional of Madrid since 1872. It takes its name from the Collegiale of Daroca (Aragon) where it was held for a long time. It is of English origin, embroidered in opus anglicanum, and dates from the end of the 13th century. The central part has three scenes from the Life of Jesus and the Virgin, from bottom to top: The Annunciation, the Crucifixion and Jesus worshiped by the angels. The sides contain twelve scenes from Genesis. The orphrey did not belong originally to the cope but comes from another piece of opus anglicanum dating from the 14th century and depicts martyred saints, kings and bishops.
The embroidery is on a linen cloth, the grounds are gold while the scenes and the costumes are in polychrome silk; the faces of the figures are only embroidered for the features and the centre of the cheeks. It is a masterpiece of the finest period of opus anglicanum.
Elsa E. Gudjónsson, Kópavogur, Iceland
Icelandic ecclesiastical embroideries of the middle ages. A survey
Surviving Icelandic medieval embroideries are all ecclesiastical, consisting of, at most, nineteen altarfrontals, two burses, an altar curtain and a wall hanging, refill. They can be dated earliest from late 14th century or about 1400, some from first half 16th century, while others may be medieval or early post-Reformation, as only one (due to lack of funding) has as yet been dated by C 14 method.
The embroideries are decorated mainly with devotional pictures executed in wool in refilsaumur (laid and couched work). The paper will discuss the embroideries as to provenace, documentary records, survival, techniques and materials, decoration and date.
Saskia Durian-Ress, Freiburg, Germany
The Malterer Embroidery
The monumental hanging is one of the most remarkable embroideries of the early 14th century around the upper Rhine. The theme related to the power of women (Weiberlisten) is of particular interest: the stories of four famous lovers, belonging to different ages, the biblical, the Greek and Roman antiquity and the contemporary age of chivalry are told in four pairs of scenes. The context of the scenes testifies the power of women to inspire love and desire even in the strongest and wisest of men. Therefore the question of the original destination of the hanging remains: was it intended as a wedding present or was it dedicated to the nunnery in Freiburg where it has been found?

chalice veils
as exhibited at Textilmuseum St.Gallen
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 5

At the meeting in St.Gallen on 23rd September 1999
I proposed to start a project for the Embroidery Group.
This could be a study on embroidered chalice veils in our Museums collections.
Possible questions to be studied: time of origin, and country of origin, embroidery techniques.
please write to the Newsletter whether you are interested in other points of interest as well

Questions to members:

please tell me for the next Newsletter, until the end of december 1999:

name of your museum collection...........................................

1) the number (approximate) of chalice veils in your collection ............................................
- with a date .....Italy .....France .....Spain .....English .....German ....other
- without date.......Italy .....France .....Spain .....English .....German ....other

2) the literature used to determine the embroidery stitches in the different languages
please write to me additional literature which you are using

German: Therese de Dillemont. Rene Boser und I. Peter.
English: Grace Christie.
French: Charles Germain de St.Aubin, 1770, translated by Nikki Scheurer, Los Angeles 1983
Italian: ?
Spain: ?

Are there other points of interest that can be discussed ?, as for instance:
- which veils should we compile first ? The dated chalice veils ?
- since which time were the chalice veils in use? (see notes at back side, are there other sources?)
- comparing the embroideries with the lace it seems that the lace often is
of later date and of the same quality as the embroidery
- the golden thread in embroidery and in lace
- design and ornaments
- embroiderers

The chalice veils presented in St.Gallen, 23rd of September 1999:
embroidery lace origin collector note

1 23960 first half 17th middle 17th continental Ikle
2 23963 1700 Italy Ikle
3 23965 17th c. Italy Ikle
4 23970 18th c. Italy Ikle
5 23971 18th c. after 1660 France Ikle
6 23972 16th c. Sicily Ikle
7 23973 17th c. Italy, France Ikle
8 23974 2nd qu.17th c. late 17th Italy Ikle lace tipical 18th
9 23975 17th c Spain Ikle
10 23977 16th, 17th Italy Jacoby
11 23979 17th, 18th Italy Jacoby
12 23980 17th middle 17th Italy Jacoby
13 23993 18th late 17th ? ? lace earlier
14 23994 ? ? ? ?
15 23816 early 17th 17th Italy Ikle
16 23986 early 17th no lace Switzerland Museum cloister Feldbach

chalice veils
definition of the expression
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 6

Raiment for the Lord’s Service
by Christa C. Mayer-Thurmann, Chicago 1975. Page 27: Chalice Veil
Latin: Velum, German: Kelchvelum, English: Chalice Veil, French: Voile de Calice, Italian: Velo del Calice, Spanish: Velo para Caliz, Polish: Velum
The function of the chalice veil is to cover the chalice and the paten until the moment of Communion and thereafter. Based upon the dimensions of surviving 17th and 18th centuries examples it was an accessory which fell generally between the dimensions of 50-60cm in a square.
The introduction of the calice veil in its 17th - 18th Century appearance goes only back to the 16th Century, although the so-called offertorium, also known as mappula, sindon, sudarium, mantile and palla was in existence around the 13th Century. Its function differed slightly from the 17th - 18th Century chalice veil’s use.
In comparison to the burse, which had to be lined with linen and the corporal which always had to be made of linen, the chalice veil had to be made of silk and could be further decorated with gold and silver metal threads either through brocading or embroidering, according to the writing of Saint Charles Borromeo. In some places it was not accepted immediately. Cologne had to pass a decree in 1651 which finally introduced the chalice veil: "OMNES SACERDOTES DEINCEPS VELUM AD COOPERIENDUM CALICEM ADHIBEANT".
page 32: Humeral / Humeral Veil
: Latin: Humeralis, German: Schultertuch, English: Humeral, French: Humeral, Italian Omerale, Spanish: Humeral, Polish: Humeral
Function: Humeral and humeral veil can be traced do the Latin word humerus - shoulder. As a liturgical vestment it is a wide oblong veil or scarf, worn around the shoulders at High Mass by the sub-deacon at the time when he holds the paten between the offertory and the Paternoster. It is also worn by the priest at the moment when he raises the monstrance to give the Benediction. Furthermore, the humeral is used to cover the celebrant’s hands while holding a sacred vessel, be it the chalice, the paten, the pyx or the monstrance.
Die liturgischen Paramente
by Joseph Braun, Koeln, 1924, S. 213 - 215, das Kelchvelum
Das christliche Altertum und das Mittelalter haben unser heutiges Kelchvelum nicht gekannt. Die Einfuehrung zu Rom faellt in die Zeit zwischen der Entstehung des Ordo Burchards und der Herausgabe des Roemischen Missales durch Pius V. (1570).
Zu Mailand wurde es durch den hl. Karl Borromaeus vorgeschrieben, wenn es dort nicht schon vorher Eingang gefunden hatte. Nach der "Instructio" Heiligen sollte das Kelchvelum wenigstens 66cm im Geviert messen und ringsum eine leichte Randverzierung aus Seide, Silber oder Gold erhalten.
In Koeln wurde seine Verwendung erst nach ausdruecklicher Bestimmung der Synode von 1651 allgemein. Einfluss auf seine Einfuehrung hatte die Annahme des Roemischen Missales, in dem es vorgeschrieben ist.
Dictionnaire des Arts Liturgiques, 19e - 20e siecle
par Bernard Berthod, Elisabeth Hardouin-Fugier
Voile de Calice. n. m. (Chalice veil, Kelchvelum, Velo di calice).
Selon la rubrique du Missel, le calice doit être couvert par une piece de soie carree ou rectangulaire lors de son transport et pendant la premiere partie de la messe jusqu’à l’offertoire. Ce voile, souvent taille dans la même etoffe que la chasuble, peut être orne de broderies, la doublure doit être egalement en soie. Il mesure entre 60 et 70 cm de côte. Son usage est aujourd’hui pratiquement abandonne.
(Barbier de Montault, Le Costume, T. 2, pp. 17, 165-171. - Dumortier J., Revue pratique de Liturgie et de Musique sacree, Lille. T. 2, 1917, pp. 290-293. - Lesage, 1952, col. 1099-1100).
S. 228ff: das Schultervelum ist aelter als das Kelchvelum.
Es ist ein auf Nacken und Schultern ruhendes, mit den Enden vorn ueber die Brust herabfallendes Tuch, das zum Verhuellen der Haende beim Anfassen bestimmter Gegenstaende dient. Der Umstand, dass es den Schultern aufliegt ist unwesentlich und steht mit dem Zwecke in keinem inneren Zusammenhang.
Man unterscheidet das Sakramentsvelum (sakramentaler Segen, theophorische Prozessionen und Versehgaenge), das subdiakonale Velum (Subdiakon verhuellt die bis zu den Augen emporgehobene Patene), das Akolythenvelum (bei Pontifikalfunktionen traegt ein Akolyth die Mitra, so oft der Bischof sie ablegen muss).
Das Akolythenvelum kennt bereits der Ordo des Gajetanuns (1311). Das Pontifikale des Durandus, welches etwas aelter ist als der Ordo des Gajetanus, weiss dagegen von ihm noch nichts.
Das Velum kam vermutlich in Rom zu Gebrauch. Allerdings scheint die Form des Schultervelums im 14. Jh. unbekannt und wurde fruehestens im Laufe des 15. Jhs ueblich. Das Sakramentsvelum findet im 15. roemischen Ordo (um 1400) erste Erwaehnung, es umzog aber noch nicht beide Schultern. Ausserhalb Roms war der Brauch verschieden.

New Acquisition: Bern, 1999
Historisches Museum, Bern, Switzerland
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 9

The Historisches Museum Berne bought:
embroidered bed valance
dated 1604
Acquisition at Auction Drouot,
Hôtel des Ventes de Neuille (Paris), April 15th 1999
reported by A.W,
It is a wool embroidery, bearing the date of 1604, measuring 46cm by 565cm,
with coat of arms of the Bernese family
Niklaus Wyttenbach 1550 - 1604
and Salome Thormann born 1556 - ?initials of daughter Barbara Wittenbach, born in - ?
married 1605 Hans von Bueren
second marriage: 1630 Franz Gueder

The embroidery is worked on a linen ground (15 threads per cm) in coloured wool and silk yarns and metal threads. The date 1604 and initials NW , SD on top and BW below are added.
It showes in 16 scenes the Passion of Christ, starting with birth and adoration scenes up to cruxification and burial.
The stitches are overcast stitches in twisted wool yarn and splitstitch in silk.
The background is completely covered with stitches in green colour. The contours are worked in dark brown overcast stitch, some stockings of figures are embroidered in a webstitch which is lying on the linen ground material.

article in: Jacquard, n. 38, 1999
"Buratti" in Carnia
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 10

Maria Mansi
Buratti frangiati bianco-rossi nei corredi della carnia
in: Jacquard, No 38/1999
numero di Primavera
a cura della Fondazione Arte della Seta Lisio

Red and white fringed "Buratti" in Carnia
The journal is written in Italian, but there is a translation of the "Buratti" article in English:

Exhibition: With Golden Thread
embroideries for the Prussian Court
No 11 / Sept.1999/ 11

Preussische Schloesser und Gaerten
D-14414 Potsdam

reported by A.W.
Exhibition: Mit goldenem Faden, Stickereien fuer den Preussischen Hof
at: Orangerie und Schloss Charlottenhof, Park Sanssouci
from: August 22nd until October 15th 1999

together with the exhibition there will be guided tours and conferences
inscriptions are possible: tel. 0331/9694-317

Because of their fragility the embroideries cannot be permanently exhibited. Usually the pieces remain in the storage rooms. About 100 objects of the former royal and imperial possessions from 1700 until the end of the monarchy in 1918 give a unique survey. The most noble task of the court embroideries was the representative decoration. Inventaries of the castle and witnesses of the past give evidence of room decorations and the richly embroidered tapestries.
Different stiching techniques can be admired in the exhibition. The names of two gold embroiderers and of their families are known: Jean Pailly, and Mathias Immanuel Heynitschek. Also Queen Sophie Dorothea, Queen Luise and Queen Elisabeth were occupied with embroidery.

back of throne of Frederick the Great, gold relief embroidery by Matthias Immanuel Heynitschek, around 1740

Madonna in the workshop, embroidery after
the painting of Eduard Steinbrueck, around 1850

there also was a Colloquium on October 16th, from 9 am until 6 pm in the castle of Lindstedt:
embroideries of the 18th and 19th centuries and their historic background
- Dr. Susanne Evers, SPSG, Einfuehrung
- Nadja Kuschel, SPSG, Goldstickereien in Preussen, Techniken
- Dr. Uta-Christiane Bergemann, SPSG, Goldstickereien in Preussen, Werkstaetten
- Sigrid Gerlitz, SPSG: Abenteuer Restaurierung
- Dr. Anne Wanner, St.Gallen, Maschinenstickerei im 19. Jh.
- Dr. Dagmar Neuland-Kitzerow, Berlin, das Sticken der Frauen und Maedchen, 2. Haelfte 19. Jh.
- Christa Jeitner, Brandenburg, Stickereien der Augustinerinnen aus dem Neuwerkkloster in Erfurt, 17. und 18. Jh.
- Friederike Ebner von Eschenbach, Helmstedt und Potsdam: die Wiederbegruendung der Paramentenstickerei im Kloster Marienberg in Helmstedt, 19. Jh.
- Dr. Dela von Boeselager, Koeln, ein Stickauftrag fuer die Kaiserkroenung
- Dr. Petra Hesse, Mannheim, Paramentenstickerei des Historismus im Rheinland

Colloquium: October 1999
abstract of some papers: with Golden Thread
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 12

Abstract of some of the contributions
of the Colloquium

reported by A.W.

Dr. Uta-Christiane Bergemann, SPSG, Gold embroideries at the Prussian Court.
Berlin gold embroideries developped since 1701 when Prussia became a kingdom. In the aera of absolutism precious Insignia of their power and authority were embroidered.
In Prussia there existed six gold embroiderer’s workshops, from old account books it can be seen, that these embroiderers had to learn their craft in 7 years. There also was an unknown number of women, sometimes they worked independently, sometimes also in workshops. Famous embroiderers were the families of the Hugenot Jean Pailly - three generations were active in the 18th c. - and of Mathias Immanuel Heynitschek.
In 1744 two fire screen panels were made for Frederik the Great. From 1752 - 54 Heynitschek furnished the wall setting for the castle of Potsdam. In three years he finished three rooms and he earned for this work 12’000 Reichstaler.

Dr. Dela von Boeselager, Koeln, an embroidery order for the the emperor’s coronation.
In the treasury of the cathedral of Cologne precious gold embroidered vestments are preserved. They were made in 1742, for Clemens August, Archbishop of Cologne, in occasion of the incoronation of the emperor Charles VII, the archbishops brother. The archbishop ordered all together 22 vestments: 8 Copes, 12 dalmatics, 2 chasubles. There are also chalice veils, bursa, palla and in addition 5 mitras.
In documents in Paris von Boeselager found that the originaly 60 parts were embroidered in workshops of Parisian gold embroiderers. At that time the corporation of embroiderers in Paris consisted of up to 200 masters. The whole work was done in 3-4 months and it arrived in Cologne on february 12th in 1742.
The Archbishop was born in 1700 and in the year 2000 there will be a commemorative exhibition to his 300th birthday.
Dr. Dela von Boeselager will publish her studies very soon.

Dr. Petra Hesse, Mannheim, vestment embroidery of historism in the Rheinland
The congregation of the Sisters "vom armen Kinde Jesu" was founded in Aachen (1848-1914), and it initiated the historic vestment’s embroidery of the 19th c. in the Rhinelands.
The numerous documents and many preserved vestments of the workshop made it possibel to show for the first time a workshop with all its facets.
Stilistically the sisters wanted to imitate medieval times. The biggest workshop was in Aachen itself, about 30 embroideresses were occupied with vestments. Orders came from other countries as well. And it was Franz Bock who gave to the sisters useful designs. The sisters reproduced the vestments of the golden fleece in Vienna and they worked after prints of Martin Schongauer and others.
Dr. Petra Hesse will be publishing these studies, which are her doctoral thesis, very soon.

Book review: Historical Fashion in Detail
by A. Hart and S. North, 1998
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 13

A. Hart and S. North
Historical Fashion in Detail. The 17th and 18th Centuries
Victoria & Albert Museum 1998
reported by Pat Griffiths
illustrated in colour and black and white, glossary, bibliography.

Exhibition Catalogue: Amsterdam, June to October 1999
by J. Fontein: De Dansende Demonen van Mongolie
No 11 /Sept.1999/ 14

J. Fontein
De Dansende Demonen van Mongolië
(The Dancing Demons of Mongolia)
Catalogue of the exhibition in Amsterdam 26th June to 17th October 1999

reported by Pat Griffiths
text in Dutch, illustrated in colour and black and white, glossary, bibliography

The exhibition of Mongolian art, of which this book is the catalogue, was held in Amsterdam from 26 June to 17 October 1999.


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