|ANNE WANNER'S Textiles in History / Publications|
|World exhibitions and
design, 1851 - 1878, as shown in publications from
published in: CIETA-Bulletin No 75, 1998, p. 153 - 160, by Anne Wanner-JeanRichard
|page 1 of 6
|This article draws on information
provided by the International Exhibitions to explore the
development of the Swiss embroidery industry during
the second half of the 19th century.
In addition to the official catalogues, many exhibits were described in a series of lavishly-illustrated journals beginning with a special supplemet to The Art Journal in 1852.
Its success encouraged others to follow suit, including F.A. Brockhaus of Leipzig, who published illustrated cataloges of the 1862, 1867, 1873 and 1878 exhibitions.
his introduction to the first of these, Brockhaus set out
the main aims of the publication; they
were to provide industry with aesthetic guide-lines and
proof - with examples - of the union of Fine and Applied
Art; to contribute to the history of industry; to be a
souvenir both for visitors and for those who had not
visited the exhibition; and, through its illustrations,
to help refine the taste of those people, particularly
women, who were not interested in industry.
|of designs and patterns,
while reiterating the belief that an art-school training
was indispensable for all manufacturers. The question of
good design was a recurring theme, as was the debate over
industrialisation and its impact on taste.
The London Exhibition of 1851 was an important event for the hand embroidery industry of eastern Switzerland. Many of the Swiss manufacturers participated, and their names and short descriptions of their exhibited articles were published in the official English catalogue (2).
Some of the exhibits were also published in the supplement to the illustrated Journal of Leipzig of May 10th 1851, (3), where, as in other publications concerned with the world exhibitions, wood engraving was the preferred method of reproduction.
Although it is difficult to distinguish between the techniques of lace, embroidery and Jacquard weaving, these illustrations give a good idea of the designs.
|The entries in the
English catalogue for No. 205 reads:
- TANNER, JOHN ULRICK, Bühler, Canton of Appenzell, Manufacturer. Silk pocket handkerchiefs, embroidered in cotton with portraits, &c.
Curtain, table-cloth, or bed-cover, muslin and silk, embroidered in cotton, representing William Tell and the arms of the twenty-two cantons of Switzerland: specimen of every kind of embroidery.
Transparent silk, representing the female embroiderer while working the preceding, with several landscapes of the country and the dwelling-place of the manufacturer.
Picture of silk worked in cotton and coloured silk, from nature. Curtain of net, embroidered; muslin curtains, embroidered.
Bed-cover of net muslin, embroidered.
Dress of raw silk, embroidered and coloured in silk, &c.
Dress of muslin, embroidered and coloured in cotton, wool, silk, gold, with feathers and pearls.
Dress of muslin, embroidered with net.
More precise information about the "transparent silk" was supplied by the Journal of Leipzig which states that the lady Appenzell is sitting in a landscape with the Säntis mountain in the background. In the right hand corner there is a view of the village of Appenzell, in the left hand corner a representation of Wildkirchli and at the bottom the village of Bühler, where Mr. Tanner lived.
|In addition to those
exhibited by the firm of Tanner, embroidered dress pieces
were shown by other manufacturers including the firm of John
Baenziger from Thal near St Gallen. Entry No.
- BAENZIGER, JOHN, Thal, near St Gall.
Manufacturer, Specimens of needlework, viz. ; robe,
cape, collars, on muslin and jaconet; caps, on
the same; short sleeves.
1 - Dr. Wilhelm Hamm, Illustrierter Katalog der Pariser Industrie-Austellung von 1867, published by F.A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1868
2 - Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue in three volumes, of the Great Exhibition 1851, London
1851, vol. III, Switzerland, p. 1264-1283, entries of embroideries No. 188 to 208.
3 - Beilage zur illustrierten Zeitung, Leipzig, 10. Mai 1851.
4 - Peter Holderegger, Unternehmer im Appenzellerland, Herisau 1992, Baenziger Johannes, p. 82.
|London||Designers||Reports||Machines||Style||Later 19th c.|
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