||The Journal of Leipzig
considered the designer to be the most important
person in an embroidery business, and Paris to be the
centre of embroidery design. It distinguished
between the so called dessinateurs du premier
rang and their imitators. A number of Swiss
and other manufacturers paid for their local designers to
go to Paris for some weeks each year, other producers
bought the patterns already finished in Paris, while the
designers of smaller concerns made alterations to such
patterns, to suit their requirements. The Journal of
Leipzig also noted that Swiss embroidery was very
often sold as French embroidery and that more than half
of the broderies de Paris were made by Swiss
ladies from Appenzell. A reason for this can be found in
the English 1851 catalogue where it says: "hand
embroidery is carried on in the eastern parts of
Switzerland, where manual labour is extremely cheap"
(9). In 1851 the
manufacturers of eastern Switzerland exhibited only hand
embroidery and the illustrations and descriptions show
that their products were of high quality. The Swiss were
concerned that other designers might copy their motives,
although, if we compare Swiss embroidery with other
exhibits, it is clear that there was no particular Swiss
||In 1862, the
Brockhaus catalogue (10) laid specially emphasis
on Nottingham as a major centre of
British cotton white works, commenting that half the
world would be supplied from Nottingham with lace, robes,
curtains, scarves and so on, and that this boom in the
British thread industry was due to the development of
machines. The publication compared Nottingham's success
to the situation in eastern Switzerland, where production
had declined because in that country the manufacurers
were late in importing improved machines.
remark in connection with this: in Nottingham, first
attempts with machine lace go back to the 18th century.
Good results were obtained with the Pusher machine, which
was invented in 1812 and used till 1870.
9 - Official Descriptive and
Illustrated Catalogue, of the Great
Exhibition 1851, London 1851, vol. III. Switzerland, p.
10 - Dr. Wilhelm Hamm, Illustrierter
Katalog der Londoner Industrie-Ausstellung von 1862,
published by F.A. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1863, vol. 2, p.