|ANNE WANNER'S Textiles in History / publications|
|World exhibitions and
design, 1851 - 1878, as shown in publications from
published in: CIETA-Bulletin No 75, 1998, p. 153 - 160, by Anne Wanner-JeanRichard
|page 4 of 6
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|see also||Embroidery machines:|
|The first embroidery machine
had been bought in 1829 from its inventor, Josua Heilmann
of Alsace, by the St Gallen cloth merchant, Franz Mange (12).
It proved to be too complicated and was not suitable for
large-scale production, because at least two people were
needed for its operation; only in 1850's, when
improvements were made, was it possible to get better
results. In 1854, Franz E. Rittmeyer established the
first Swiss factory with 12 machines in the city of St
Gallen. None-the-less, as already noted, the Swiss showed
only hand-embroidered goods at the 1851 Exhibition and no
machines were included in the Swiss display - the
manufacturers were afraid that their machines could not
compete with those of England.
In his report on the
exhibition (13) the Swiss G. Delabor,
regretted this and expressed his belief that firms such
as Escher Wyss in Zurich, Rieter and Sulzer in Winterthur
and St. Georgen near St Gallen, should have sent at least
some small proof of their capabilities. Four years later,
in Paris in 1855, the Swiss embroidery machine was
|machine. The Swiss were
reluctant to sell and, as it was not possible to obtain
it legally, Schnorr found two men who smuggled a machine
across Lake Constance at night.
On January 2nd, 1858 the first embroidery machine was installed in Plauen (14).
Several different types of embroidery machine were developed. The first, the so-called handmachine, was in use from about 1845 and was initially operated entirely by hand, although it was later powered by water and then electricity.
The chain-stitch Cornély machine was introduced into Switzerland in about 1867, although similar types had been developed here in the early 1860s.
The Schifflimachine, although invented in 1863, was not taken-up until 1883. This machine, when combined with the burnt-out technique, led to the production of imitation lace and resulted in a boom in the embroidery and embroidered-lace industry. The Jacquard system was eventually applied to the machines and today they are controlled by computer.
12 - Anne Wanner, "The Sample Collection of Machine Embroidery of Eastern Switzerland in the St Gallen Ttxtile Museum" in: Textile History, 22 (2), 165 - 176, 1992.
13 - Gangolf Delabor, Bericht über die Weltausstellung in London 1851, St Gallen, Bern 1852, p. 161.
14 - Erhardt Willy, Das Glück auf der Nadelspitze, Plauen 1995, S. 21,22.
|London||Designers||Reports||Machines||Style||Later 19th c.|
|content||Last revised July 29, 2004|